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God commands you to deliver trusts back to their owners, and when you judge between the people, that you judge with justice. Quran 4:58.

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
-
Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

Preface

Knowledge and Religious Experience

The Philosophical Test of the Revelations of Religious Experience

The Conception of God and the Meaning of Prayer

The Human Ego - His Freedom and Immortality

The Spirit of Muslim Culture

The Principle of Movement in the Structure of Islam

Is Religion Possible?

Notes and References

Bibliography

Index

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Works of Allama Iqbal

(A) Works in Prose

Bedil in the Light of Bergson, ed. and annotated by Dr. Tehsin Firaqi, Lahore, 1988.The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (a contribution to the history of Muslim philosophy), London, 1908. Reprinted Lahore, 1954, 1959, 1964.

Ilm al-Iqtisad, Lahore, 1903. Rep. Karachi, 1962.

Six Lectures on the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, Lahore, 1930. 2nd edn., with revision at about six places and quite a few proof-reading corrections and changes, and more importantly with the addition of Lecture: ‘Is Religion Possible?’ and an Index, published under the title: The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, London, 1934. Reprinted Lahore, 1944, many later edns. Reprinted Delhi, 1974. French trans. by de Eva Meyerovitch: Reconstruire la pens e religieuse de l’Islam, Paris, 1955. Arabic trans. by ‘Abbs Mahmd: Tajdd al-Tafkr al-Dn fi’l-Islam, Cairo, 1955. Urdu trans. by Sayyid Nadhr Niyz: Tashkl-i Jadd Ilhyt-i Islmyah, Lahore, 1958. Persian trans. by Ahmad Aram, Ihya-i Fikr-i Din dar Islam, Tehran, 1967. Also translated at least in five more languages.

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, ed. and annotated by M. Saeed Sheikh, Lahore, 1986, reprinted Lahore, 1989; Spanish trans. by Jose Esteban Calderon: La Reconstruction del Pensamiento Religioso en el Islam, Lahore 1989; Stray Reflections, A Note-Book of Allama Iqbal (1910), ed. by Javid Iqbal, Lahore, 1961.

Trkh-i Tasawwuf (1916), ed. by Sbir Kalurv, Lahore, 1985.

(B) Major Poetical Works (With English Translation)

Asrr-i Khud trans. by R. A. Nicholson: The Secrets of the Self, London, 1920; rev. edn., Lahore, 1940, many later edns.

Bl-i Jibrl (1935), trans. of the earlier two Parts (16 + 61 Ghazals) by Syed Akbar Ali Shah: Gabriel’s Wing, Islamabad, 1979; trans. of six quatrains and of twenty-three poems from the last part (as also of some poems from other works) by V. G. Kiernan: Poems from Iqbal, London, 1955 (Part II).

Jvd Nmh (1932), trans. by Shaikh Mahmud Ahmad: The Pilgrimage of Eternity, Lahore, 1961, 1977; also by Arthur J. Arberry: Javid-Nama, London, 1966; trans. of the concluding section: Khitb ba Jvd by B. A. Dar: Address to Javid, Karachi, 1971.

Pym-i Mashriq (1923), trans. by M. Hadi Hussain: A Message from the East, Lahore, 1977.

Rumz-i Bekhud, trans. by Arthur H. Arberry: The Mysteries of Selflessness, London, 1953.

Zabr-i ‘Ajam (1927), trans. by Arthur J. Arberry: Persian Psalms, Lahore, 1948; trans. of the all too important mathnaw Gulshan-i Rz-i Jadd (New Garden of Mystery) as well as Bandag Nmh (Book of Servitude), the closing parts of this work, by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Lahore, 1964; also by M. Hadi Hussain: The New Rose Garden of Mystery and the Book of Slaves, Lahore, 1969.

Complete poetical works in Persian and Urdu published in 2 vols. Kulliyt-i Iqbl: Fris & Kulliyt-i Iqbl: Urdu, Lahore, 1973.

(C) Addresses, Articles, Letters, etc.

(i) Compilations in English

Discourses of Iqbal, ed. by Shahid Hussain Razzaqi, Lahore, 1979.

Iqbal by Atiya Begum, Bombay, 1947.

Letters and Writings of Iqbal, ed. by B. A. Dar, Karachi, 1967.

Letters of Iqbal, ed. by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Lahore, 1978.

Letters of Iqbal to Jinnah, with a Foreword by (Quaid-i-Azam) M. A. Jinnah, Lahore, 1942.

Mementos of Iqbal, compiled by Rahim Bakhsh Shaheen, Lahore, n.d.

Speeches, Writings and Statements of Iqbal ed. by Latif Ahmad Sherwani (3rd rev. and enlarged edn.), Lahore, 1977.

Thoughts and Reflections of Iqbal, ed. by Syed Abdul Vahid, Lahore, 1964.

(ii) Major Compilations in Urdu

Anwr-i Iqbl, ed. by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Karachi, 1967.

Guftr-i Iqbl, ed. by M. Rafq Afal, Lahore, 1969.

Iqblnmah (Majm’ah-i Maktb-i Iqbl), ed. by Shaikh ‘At Ullh, 2 Parts, Lahore, 1945, 1951.

Khutt-i Iqbal, ed. and annotated by Raf’-ud-Dn Hshim, Lahore, 1976.

Maqlt-i Iqbl, ed. by Sayyid ‘Abdul Vhid Mu’n, Lahore, 1963.

Rh-i Maktb-i Iqbl, ed. by M. ‘Abdullh Quraish, Lahore, 1977 (a useful compendium of 1233 letters arranged chronologically).

(II) SECONDARY WORKS AND ARTICLES REFERRED

TO IN NOTES AND TEXT

(A) Works

‘Abd al-Qdir, ‘Al Hasan, Nazarah ‘mmah fi Trkh al-Fiqh al-Islm, Cairo, 1942.

‘Abd al-Qudds Gangoh, Lat’if-i Qudds, ed. by Shaikh Rukn al-Dn, Delhi, 1311 A. H.

‘Abd al-Salm Khurshd, Dr, Sargudhasht-i Iqbl, Lahore, 1977.

‘Abdullah Anwar Beg, The Poet of the East, Lahore, 1939.

‘Abdullh Chaghat‘, Dr, Iqbl ki Suhbat Men, Lahore, 1977.

‘Ab Dwd, Sulaiman b. al-Ash’ath al-Sijistn, Kitb al-Sunan, 4 vols. in 2, Cairo, 1935; English trans. by Ahmad Hasan, Sunan ‘Ab Dwd, 3 vols., Lahore, 1984.

Ab Rashd Sa‘d b. Muhammad b. Sa‘d al-Naisbr, Kitb al-Mas’il fi’l-Khilf bain Basriyyn wa’l-Baghddiyyn ed. and trans. into German by Arthur Biram: Die atomistische Substanzenlehre aus dem Buch der Streitfragen Basrensern und Baghdadensern, Leyden, 1902.

Aghnides, Nicolas P., Mohammedan Theories of Finance (with an Introduction to Mohammedan Law and a Bibliography), New York, 1916; rep. 1969.

Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 6 vols., Beirut, n.d.

Ahmad Hasan, The Doctrine of Ijm‘ in Islam, Islamabad, 1976.

Ahmad Nabi Khan, Dr (ed.), Relics of Allama Iqbal (Catalogue), Islamabad, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Government of Pakistan, 1982.

Ahmad Sirhind, Shaikh, Maktbt-i Imm-i Rabbn, Vol. I, Lahore, n.d.

‘Ain al-Qudt Hamadn, Ghyat al-Imkn fi Diryat al-Makn, ed. by Rahm Farmanish in his compilation Ahwl-o-Athr ‘Ain al-Qudt, Tehran, 1338(S); Eng. trans. based on collation with Rampur Library MS by A. H. Kamali, Karachi, 1971.

Alexander, Samuel, Space, Time and Deity (The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow, 1916-1918), 2 Vols., London, 1920.

al-Amid, Saif al-Dn, Al-Ihkm fi Ul al Akm, 4 Vols., Beirut, 1400/1980.

Arberry, A. J. (tr.) Muslim Saints and Mystics: Episodes from the Tadhkirat al-Auliy’ (Memorial of the Saints) by Fard al-Dn al- ‘Aǫr, London, 1979.

---, Revelation and Reason in Islam (The Forwood Lectures for 1956), London, 1957.

Asad, Muhammad, The Message of the Qur’n, Gibralter, 1980.

al-Ash‘ar, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Alb. Ism’l, Maqlt al-Islmiyn, ed. by Muhammad Muhy al-Dn ‘Abd al-Hamd, 2 vols., Cairo, 1369/1950.

Ashnawi`, Shaikh Tj al-Dn Mahmd b. Khuddd, Ghyat al-Imkn fi Ma’rifat al-Zamn wa’l-Makn, ed. by Nadhr Sbir, Campbellpur, 1401 A.H.

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al-Baqilln, Ab Bakr Muhammad b. al-Tayyib, Kitb al-Tamhd, ed. by Richard J. McCarthy, Beyrouth, 1957.

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al-Brn, Ab Raihn, Al-Qann al-Mas‘d, vol. I, Hyderabad (Deccan), 1373/1954.

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Bonola, Roberto, Non-Euclidean Geometry: A Critical and Historical, Study of Its Development, Chicago, 1912.

Bradley, Francis Herbert, Appearance and Reality: A Metaphysical Essay, Oxford, 1930.

---, Ethical Studies, Oxford, 1927.

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Eddington, Arthur Stanley, The Nature of the Physical World (Gifford Lectures 1927), London, 1928.

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Fahri, F. Ziyaeddin, Ziya G kalp: sa vie et sa sociologie, Paris, 1935.

Fakhry, Majid, A History of Islamic Philosophy, New York & London, 1970.

---, Islamic Occasionalism and Its Critique by Averroes and Aquinas, London, 1958.

Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Attributes of God (The Gifford Lectures delivered in the University of St. Andrews in the year 1924-25), London, 1925.

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Fu’d ‘Abd al-Bq, Muhammad, al-Mu‘jam al-Mufahras li Alfz al-Qur’n al-Karm, Cairo, 1364/1945.

Fyzee, Asaf A. A., Outlines of Muhammedan Law, London, 1955.

al-GhaZzl, Ab Hmid Muhammad b. Muhammad, Al-Munqidh min al-Dall, trans. by Claud Field: Confessions of al-Ghazali, London, 1909, also in W. Montgomery Watt, The Faith and Practice of al-GhazZl, London, 1953, pp. 19-85.

---, Al-Mustasfmin ‘Ilm al-Ul, 2 vols., Cairo, 1937.

---, Al-Qists al-Mustaqm, trans. with Intro. and Notes by D. P. Brewster: The Just Balance, Lahore, 1978.

---, Tahfut al-Falsifah, trans. by Sabih Ahmad Kamali: Incoherence of the Philosophers, Lahore, 1958.

Ghulm Mustaf Khn, Iqbl aur Qur’n, Lahore, 1977.

Gibb, H. A. R., Modern Trends in Islam (The Haskell Lectures in Comparative Religion, 1945), New York, 1947, reprint 1978.

---, & J. H. Kramers (eds), Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden & London, 1953.

Gillispie, Charles Coulston (ed.), Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 vols., New York, 1970-80.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von, Conversation of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret, trans. by John Oxenford, London, 1901.

G kalp, Ziya, Ziya G kalp k lliyati’i: S rler ve halk masallari, ed. by F. A. Tansel, Ankara, 1952.

---,Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization: Selected Essays of Ziya G kalp, trans. & ed. by Niyazi Berkes, London & New York, 1959.

Goldziher, Ignaz, Muhammadanische Studien, 2 vols., (1889-90), Hildsheim, 1961; trans. by C. R. Barber & S. M. Stern, Muslim Studies, 2 vols., London, vol. I: 1967, vol. II: 1971.

---,The Zhirs: Their Doctrine and Their History, trans. by Wolfgang Behn, Leiden, 1971.

Gunn, J. Alexander, The Problem of Time: A Historical and Critical Study, London, 1929.

Gwatkin, H. M. & J. P. Whitney (eds.), The Cambridge Medieval History, 2 vols., London, 1911, 1913.

j Khalfah, Mustafb. ‘Abd Allh, Kashf al-Zunn ‘an al-Asmi’l-Kutub wa’l-Funn, 2 vols., Istanbul, 1941-43.

al-Hajw, Muhammad b. al-Hasan, Al-Fikr al-Smf Trkh al-Fiqh al-Islm, 4 vols., Rabat-Fez-Tunis, 1345-49/1926-31.

Haldane, Viscount Richard Burdon, The Reign of Relativity, London, 1921.

al-Hallj, Husain b. Mansr, Kitb al-Tawsin, Arabic text and Persian version of Baql, ed. by Louis Massignon, Paris, 1913; French translation by L. Massignon in La passion d’al-allj, II, 830-93; Eng. trans. by Aisha Abd Ar-Rahman, Berkeley & London, 1974; also in Gilani Kamran: Ana al-Haqq Reconsidered, Lahore, 1398 A. H., pp. 55-108.

Hamidullah, Dr M. (ed.), Sahifa Hammam-Bin-Munabbih (Arabic text with Urdu trans.), Hyderabad (Deccan), 1956.

Hanf Nadv, Muhammad, ‘Aqliyt-i Ibn-i Taimyyah, Lahore, 1981.

Hassan, Riffat, The Sword and the Sceptre (A collection of writings on Iqbal), Lahore, 1977.

Heath, Sir Thomas Little (tr.), The Thirteen Books of Euclid’s Elements, vol. I, Cambridge, 1926.

Heyd, Uriel, Foundations of Turkish Nationalism: The Life and Teachings of Ziya G kalp, London, 1950.

Hitti, Philip Khuri, History of the Arabs, London & New York, 1951.

Hocking, William Ernest, The Meaning of God in Human Experience, New Haven, 1955.

Hoernle, R. F. Alfred, Matter, Life, Mind and God (Five Lectures on Contemporary Tendencies of Thought), London, 1923.

Holy Bible, The (Authorised King James Version), London & New York, n.d.

Horten, Max, Die Hauptlehren des Averroes nach seiner Shrift: Die Widerlegung des Gazali, Bonn, 1913.

Hourani, George F. (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, Albany, 1975.

al-Hujwr, ‘Alb. ‘Uthmn, Kashf al-Mahjb (Iran Pakistan Institute of Persian Studies, Publication no. 29), Lahore, 1398/1978; Eng. trans. by R. A. Nicholson, London, 1911.

Ibn AbZar, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Alb. ‘Abd Allh, Raud al-Qirts (Upsala, 1843); French trans. by A. Beaumier: Histoire des souverains du Magreb . . .’ Paris, 1860.

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Ibn Hazm, ‘Alb. Ahmad, Kitb al-Fisal fi’l-Milal wa’l-Ahw’ wa’-l-Nihal, 4 vols., Cairo, 1311-1312.

---, Al-Taqrb li-Hadd al-Mantiq, ed. by Dr Ihsan Abbas (from the only MS 6814, al-Maktabat al-Ahmadyah, Tunis), Beirut, 1959.

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---, Kitb Ta’wl Mukhtalif al-Hadth, ed. by Faraj Allh Zaki`al-Kurdi`, et. al., Cairo, 1326 A.H.

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---, Psychology of the Unconscious, trans. by B. M. Hinkle, London, 1919.

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(B) Articles

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Dr, Bashr Ahmad, ‘Iqbal Aur Mas’alah-i Zamn-o-Makn,’ in Salim Akhtar (ed.) Fikr-i-Iqbl ke Munawwar Goshay (Lahore, 1977), pp. 141-51.

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Ehsan Elahie, Rana M. N., ‘Iqbal on the Freedom of Ijtihd,’ Oriental College Magazine (Allama Iqbal Centenary Number), LIII (1977), 295-330. Contains facsimiles of Allama Iqbal’s recently discovered four letters to Professor Maulavi Muhammad Shaf’ from 13 March 1924 to 1 May 1924.

Emmet, Dorothy M., ‘Alexander, Samuel’, The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, I, 69-73.

Forster, E. M., ‘The Secrets of the Self (Asrr-i-Khudi)’, The Athenaeum (10 December 1920), pp. 803-04; a book review reproduced in Dr Riffat Hasan (ed.), The Sword and the Sceptre, pp. 277-85.

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Goldziher, Ignaz, ‘Dwd B. ‘Al B. Khalf’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, V, 405-06 ‘Ibn Hazm’, ibid., VII, 70-72.

---, ‘Materialien zur Kenntniss der Almohadenbewegung’, Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenl ndischen Gesellschaft, XLI (1887), 30-140.

Haldane, J.S., ‘Are Physical, Biological and Psychological Categories Irreducible?’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, XVIII (1917-18), 419-36.

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Haque, Serajul, ‘Ibn Taimiyya’s Conception of Analogy and Consensus’, Islamic Culture, XVII (1943), 77-87; ‘Ibn Taimiyyah’ in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 796-819.

Hshim, Raf’al-Dn, ‘Allmah ke Chand Ghair-Mudawwan Khu’, Iqbal Review, XXIII/iv (Jan. 1983), 41-59 (reproduces Allama Iqbal’s letter dated 6 May 1937 addressed to Professor Dr Syed Zafarul Hasan, which indicates that Allama had gathered ‘material’ for his proposed Rhodes Memorial Lectures on ‘Space and Time in Muslim Thought’).

Haydar Ali Dirioz, ‘Tevfik Fikret’, Journal of the Regional Cultural Institute, I/4 (Autumn 1968), 12-15.

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Hourani, G. F., ‘The Dialogue Between Al-Ghazzli and the Philosophers on the Origin of the World’, The Muslim World, XLVIII/iii and iv (1958), 183-91, 308-14.

Hussain, Riaz, ‘1910 men Dunya-i Islm ke Hlt (‘Political Conditions of the Islamic World in 1910)’, Iqbal Review, XIX/2 (July 1978), 85-90 (focussed on Allama Iqbal’s letter dated 22 August 1910 addressed to the Editor, Paisa Akhbr - an Urdu daily of Lahore).

Imtiyz ‘Al Khn ‘Arsh, M., ‘Zamn-o Makn k Bahth ke Muta’allaq ‘Allmah Iqbl ka aik Ma’akhadh: ‘Irqya Ashnaw’, Iqbal Centenary Papers Presented at the International Congress on Allama Mohammad Iqbal (2-8 December 1977), vol. IV (Papers in Urdu), pp. 1-10.

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Kazim, M. A., ‘Al-Brn and Trignometry’, Al-Brn Commemoration Volume, pp. 161-70.

Kennedy, E. S., ‘Al-Brn Ab Raihn’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, II, 147-68 (bases al-Brn’s ‘theory of function’ on his ‘Treatise on Shadows’).

Koffka, K., ‘Gestalt’, Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, VI, 642-46.

Kofler, Hans, ‘Handbuch des islamischen Staats und Verwaltungsrechtes von Badr-ad-Din ibn Gama’ah. Herausgegeben, abersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen’, Islamics VI (1934), 349-414, VII (1935), 1-64 and Schl ssheft (1938), 18-129 (Arabic text with German trans. of Ibn Jam’ah’s Tahrr al-Ahkm fi Tadbr Ahl al-Islm).

Kroll, Wilhelm, ‘Atomic Theory (Greek)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 197a-99a.

Laoust, H, ‘Ibn Taimyya’, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition), III, 951-55.

McCarthy, R. J., ‘Al-Bakilln,’ The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition), I, 958-59.

Macdonald, D.B., ‘Continuous Re-creation and Atomic Time in Moslem Scholastic Theology’, Isis, IX (1927), 326-44; reprinted in The Moslem World, XVIII/i (Jan. 1928), 6-28.

---, ‘Ijtihd,’ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, II, 448-49; reproduced in the New edition, III, 1026-27.

McTaggert, J. M. E., ‘The Unreality of Time’, Mind, New Series, XVII (October 1908), 457-74.

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---, ‘Soul: Islamic Concepts’, The Encyclopedia of Religion, XIII, 460-65.

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Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, ‘Shihb al-Dn Suhraward Maqtl’ in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, I, 372-98.

---, ‘Al-s Nasr al-Dn’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, XIII, 508-14 (also gives an assessment of al-Tu`si`’s work on parallel postulate).

Nunn, T. Percy, ‘The Idealistic Interpretation of Einstein’s Theory’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, XXII (1921-22), 127-30.

Obermann, J., ‘Political Theology in Early Islam, Hasan al-Basri’s Treatise on Qadar’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, LV (1935), 138-62.

Peyser, C. S., ‘Kohler, Wolfgang (1887-1967),’ Encyclopedia of Psychology, II, 271.

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Poynting, J. Henry, ‘Atomic Theory (Medieval and Modern)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 203b-210b.

Plessner, M., ‘Al-Jhiz’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, VII, 63-65 (focusses on Kitb al-Hayawn).

Qureshi, I. H., ‘Historiography’, in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 1195-1219.

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Russell, Bertrand, ‘Relativity, Philosophical Consequences’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1953), XIX, 98d-100a.

Sabra, A. I., ‘Ibn al-Haytham’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, VI, 189-210. (Also gives an exhaustive bibliography including up-to-date information about MSS of Kitb al-Manzir).

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---, ‘Al-Ghazali: Mysticism’, ibid., I, 617-24.

---, ‘Philosophy of Man’ (General Presidential Address, Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1987), Iqbal Review, XXIX/i; (April-June, 1988), 3-16.

Siddiqi, Dr M. Razi-ud-Din, ‘Iqbal’s Conception of Time and Space’, Iqbal As A Thinker, pp. 1-40.

---, ‘Mathematics and Astronomy’, in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 1277-92.

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Thomson, W., ‘Kharijitism and the Kharijites’ in R. W. Barstrow (ed.), The Macdonald Presentation Volume, pp. 371-89.

Vernet, Juan, ‘Mathematics, Astronomy, Optics’, in J. Schacht (ed.), The Legacy of Islam, pp. 461-89.

Watt, W. Montgomery, ‘The Political Attitudes of the Mu’tazilah’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1962, pp. 38-54.

Yazdni, Dr Khwjah Hamd, ‘Rislah dar Zamn-o-Makn’, Al-M‘arif, XVII/7 (Lahore, July 1984), 31-42, 56 (Urdu trans. of Khwaja Muhammad Prs’s tractate on space and time based on the unique MS 707, Mjm’ Tal’at, Dr al-Kutub, Cairo).

Zedler, B. H., ‘Averroes and Immortality’, New Scholasticism, 1954, pp. 436-53.

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