of Allama Iqbal's writings were devoted to a revival of Islam. In his presidential
address to the Muslim League in 1930, he first suggested that the Muslims of
northwestern India should demand a separate nation for themselves. Although
many compilations of Iqbal's poetry also deliver his message very eloquently,
his foremost book Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam was intended
to secure a vision of the spirit of Islam as emancipated from its Magian overlayings.
He encouraged Muslims to embrace ideals of brotherhood, justice, and service.
His masterpiece is 'The Song of Eternity' (1932). Similar in theme to Dante's
'Divine Comedy', it relates the poet's ascent through all realms of thought
and experience, guided by the 13th-century poet Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi. He also
wrote poetry in the Persian language. He tried to free the Muslim mind from
the prevailing colonial mentality and from Muslims' own narrow self-interests,
which is reflected in his classical work "Toloo-e-Islam" (Rise of
Prose Works by Dr. Muhammad
Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)
One of the great thinkers of this century, in this ground-breaking work, attempts
to show a path back to the scientific and intellectual striving that Muslims
once excelled in. Refuting the current methods of teaching as being from a generation
of a cultural outlook different than that facing the modern mind, Iqbal calls
for a reconstruction of thought, pointing to the fact that from the first to
fourth century no less than nineteen schools of law appeared in Islam to meet
the necessities of a growing civilization.
vs. Philosophy-To Embrace or Exclude?
What is the character and
general structures of the universe in which we live? Is there a permanent element
in the constitution of this universe? How are we related to it? What place do
we occupy in it, and what is the kind of conduct that benefits the place we
occupy? These questions are common to religion, philosophy, and higher poetry.
Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908)
This was a thesis submitted to the University of Munich for his PhD. It was
published in London in the same year. The book traces the development of metaphysics
in Persia from the time of Zoroaster to Bahaullah.
of Iqbal’s 1930 Presidential Address
"... I lead no party; I follow no leader. I have given the best part of
my life to careful study of Islam, its law and polity, its culture, its history
and its literature. This constant contact with the spirit of Islam, as it unfolds
itself in time, has, I think, given me a kind of insight into the significance
as a world fact."
of Mohammad Iqbal
First written in Persian, Bang-i Dara (Caravan Bell) was translated into Urdu
by popular demand. It is an anthology of poems written over a period of 20 years
and is divided into 3 parts.
Baal-e-Jibaeel (Gabriel's Wing) continues from Bang-i Dara. Some of the
verses had been written when Iqbal visited Britain, Italy, Egypt, Palestine,
France, Spain and Afghanistan. Contains 15 ghazals addressed to God and 61 ghazals
and 22 quatrains dealing with the ego, faith, love, knowledge, the intellect
This, Iqbal's third collection of Urdu poems, has been described as his political
manifesto. It was published with the subtitle "A Declaration of War Against
the Present Times." Zarb-e-Kaleem (The Blow of Moses' Staff) was meant
to rescue Muslims from the ills brought on by modern civilization, just as Moses
had rescued the Israelites.
Armaghan-i Hijaz (1938)
This work, published a few months after the poet's death, is a fairly small
volume containing verses in both Persian and Urdu. The title means "Gift
from the Hijaz." He had long wished to undertake the journey to the Arabian
Peninsula to perform the Hajj and to visit the tomb of the Prophet, but was
prevented from doing so by continuous illness during the last years of his life.
The Materialistic Culture
The shrine of your street
is my refuge!
The ultimate aim of Ego
The world of Body vs. World of
Our thought is the product
of your teachings
Profit for one, but Death for
Communism and Imperialism
The Glory of a Woman
The Choice is yours
Articles by Others on
Iqbal's Works & Thought
on the Material and Spiritual Future of Humanity
Iqbal's world view is based on his deep concern with the future of humanity
as well as of religion. On the future of humanity his thoughts are scattered
in his poetic works and some of his prose writings. But on the future of religion
he has elaborated his ideas in the last chapter of his book: The Reconstruction
of Religious Thought in Islam, entitled "Is Religion Possible?"
and Philosophy according to Iqbal
For Iqbal, religion is not something that is isolated from philosophy. He advocates
an integration of the two, sometimes suggesting that the science of psychology
has not reached an advanced enough level to be able to incorporate spiritual
experience as part of a scientific theory of knowledge. Iqbal thinks, given
adequate methods, the ultimate reality is within human grasp.
Quran and Muslim Unity
A reflection on Allama Iqbal's beautiful classical poem, "Tolu-e-Islam"
(Rise of Islam). Muslim misery and suffering is as common today as it was in
the days of Iqbal. Every day that passes brings more death and destruction to
Muslims, only at a much wider scale. Observing the present situation in which
Muslims find themselves today, Iqbal’s soul must be feeling extremely restless!
Date/Time Last Modified: 6/2/2004 5:52:54 PM
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