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Your Opinion Counts
Why is making new year resolutions important to you?
Helps me stay focused on my goals and vision in life
Helps me renew my spirit to improve myself and others
It's the tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) & successful people
Helps me evaluate my progress, success & failures
Help one another to piety and God fearing; do not help each other to sin and enmity. Quran 5:2.

Allama Mohammad Iqbal
Poems & Works

Most of Allama Iqbal's writings were devoted to a revival of Islam. In his presidential address to the Muslim League in 1930, he first suggested that the Muslims of northwestern India should demand a separate nation for themselves. Although many compilations of Iqbal's poetry also deliver his message very eloquently, his foremost book Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam was intended to secure a vision of the spirit of Islam as emancipated from its Magian overlayings.
He encouraged Muslims to embrace ideals of brotherhood, justice, and service. His masterpiece is 'The Song of Eternity' (1932). Similar in theme to Dante's 'Divine Comedy', it relates the poet's ascent through all realms of thought and experience, guided by the 13th-century poet Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi. He also wrote poetry in the Persian language. He tried to free the Muslim mind from the prevailing colonial mentality and from Muslims' own narrow self-interests, which is reflected in his classical work "Toloo-e-Islam" (Rise of Islam).

Prose Works by Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)
One of the great thinkers of this century, in this ground-breaking work, attempts to show a path back to the scientific and intellectual striving that Muslims once excelled in. Refuting the current methods of teaching as being from a generation of a cultural outlook different than that facing the modern mind, Iqbal calls for a reconstruction of thought, pointing to the fact that from the first to fourth century no less than nineteen schools of law appeared in Islam to meet the necessities of a growing civilization.

Religion vs. Philosophy-To Embrace or Exclude?
What is the character and general structures of the universe in which we live? Is there a permanent element in the constitution of this universe? How are we related to it? What place do we occupy in it, and what is the kind of conduct that benefits the place we occupy? These questions are common to religion, philosophy, and higher poetry.

The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908)
This was a thesis submitted to the University of Munich for his PhD. It was published in London in the same year. The book traces the development of metaphysics in Persia from the time of Zoroaster to Bahaullah.

Summary of Iqbal’s 1930 Presidential Address
"... I lead no party; I follow no leader. I have given the best part of my life to careful study of Islam, its law and polity, its culture, its history and its literature. This constant contact with the spirit of Islam, as it unfolds itself in time, has, I think, given me a kind of insight into the significance as a world fact."

Essays of Mohammad Iqbal


Baang-e-Dara (1924)
First written in Persian, Bang-i Dara (Caravan Bell) was translated into Urdu by popular demand. It is an anthology of poems written over a period of 20 years and is divided into 3 parts.

Baal-e-Jibraeel (1935)
Baal-e-Jibaeel (Gabriel's Wing) continues from Bang-i Dara. Some of the verses had been written when Iqbal visited Britain, Italy, Egypt, Palestine, France, Spain and Afghanistan. Contains 15 ghazals addressed to God and 61 ghazals and 22 quatrains dealing with the ego, faith, love, knowledge, the intellect and freedom.

Zarb-e-Kaleem (1936)
This, Iqbal's third collection of Urdu poems, has been described as his political manifesto. It was published with the subtitle "A Declaration of War Against the Present Times." Zarb-e-Kaleem (The Blow of Moses' Staff) was meant to rescue Muslims from the ills brought on by modern civilization, just as Moses had rescued the Israelites. English translation

Armaghan-i Hijaz (1938)
This work, published a few months after the poet's death, is a fairly small volume containing verses in both Persian and Urdu. The title means "Gift from the Hijaz." He had long wished to undertake the journey to the Arabian Peninsula to perform the Hajj and to visit the tomb of the Prophet, but was prevented from doing so by continuous illness during the last years of his life. English translation

The Ideal Woman
The Materialistic Culture
The shrine of your street is my refuge!
The ultimate aim of Ego
The world of Body vs. World of Soul
Our thought is the product of your teachings
Profit for one, but Death for many
Communism and Imperialism
The Glory of a Woman
The Choice is yours

Articles by Others on Iqbal's Works & Thought

Iqbal on the Material and Spiritual Future of Humanity
Iqbal's world view is based on his deep concern with the future of humanity as well as of religion. On the future of humanity his thoughts are scattered in his poetic works and some of his prose writings. But on the future of religion he has elaborated his ideas in the last chapter of his book: The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, entitled "Is Religion Possible?"

Religion and Philosophy according to Iqbal
For Iqbal, religion is not something that is isolated from philosophy. He advocates an integration of the two, sometimes suggesting that the science of psychology has not reached an advanced enough level to be able to incorporate spiritual experience as part of a scientific theory of knowledge. Iqbal thinks, given adequate methods, the ultimate reality is within human grasp.

Iqbal, Quran and Muslim Unity
A reflection on Allama Iqbal's beautiful classical poem, "Tolu-e-Islam" (Rise of Islam). Muslim misery and suffering is as common today as it was in the days of Iqbal. Every day that passes brings more death and destruction to Muslims, only at a much wider scale. Observing the present situation in which Muslims find themselves today, Iqbal’s soul must be feeling extremely restless!


Date/Time Last Modified: 6/2/2004 5:52:54 PM

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